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Philosophische Fakultät - Jahrgang 2011

 

Titel Patrimonium und Fiscus
Studien zur kaiserlichen Domänen- und Finanzverwaltung von Augustus bis Mitte des 3. Jahrhunderts n. Chr.
Autor Sabine Schmall
Publikationsform Dissertation
Zusammenfassung Eine Grundtendenz der Kaiserzeit ist die Institutionalisierung des persönlichen Dienstes des Princeps zu einer organisierten „kaiserlichen Verwaltung“. Dieser Prozess zog sich bis in die Spätantike hin und war noch nicht abgeschlossen, als Diocletian seine Verwaltungsreformen initiierte, welche das Verwaltungssystem des Principats in die prämoderne Bürokratie des spätantik-byzantinischen Kaiserreichs transformierten. Ausgehend von der Überlegung, dass die Funktionsträger der kaiserlichen Vermögensverwaltung - genauso wie die kaiserlichen Vermögensmassen selbst - nicht nur rein privaten Charakter hatten, fragt sich, inwieweit die Verwaltung des kaiserlichen Großgrundbesitzes sich von der Verwaltung der Liegenschaften anderer Großgrundbesitzer quantitativ bzw. qualitativ unterschied und ob und inwieweit die Verwalter des kaiserlichen Grundbesitzes und Vermögens, die procuratores Augusti, sich von privaten Sachwaltern abschichteten. weiter...
Abstract Patrimonium and Fiscus - Studies on the administration of imperial domains and finances from Augustus to the mid-third century
One of the basic processes underlining the evolvement of the Roman Empire was the transformation of a personal administrative service of the Emperor into an imperial administration - a process that wasn’t completed when Diocletian initiated his reforms that ultimately resulted in establishing the pre-modern bureaucracy of the later Roman and Byzantine Empire. This study seeks to determine, however, how this process started in the age of Augustus and the Iulio-Claudian principes. It asks specifically, if - and if so, how - the administration of the vast estates and abundant treasures of the early emperors led to the enhancement of its administrators, who became subsequently quasi-official administrators of not only the emperor’s wealth, but of the empire’s wealth aswell. Topics of this study are therefore the development and gradual differentiation of certain classes of its administrators, the procuratores. It concentrates on those procuratores who were responsible for the administration of the imperial domains and treasury, i.e. the procuratores patrimonii. In order to get some idea of these officials and the scope of their responsibility it was necessary to sum up the evidence on the entities aerarium, patrimonium, fiscus and res privata, that are said to form a system of “treasury”of the empire and “privy purse” of the emperor. However, it became clear that - until the age of Constantine - no elaborate system of different accounts and treasuries for the income of the emperor - naturals produced on his estates and rents paid by his tenants - could be deduced from the sources and that even led to the question, if a central procurator patrimonii - being the counterpart of the central procurator a rationibus - ever existed at all in the age of the principate. A full-scale network or hierarchy of procuratores administering the imperial finances was certainly not in place in the reign of Claudius - unlike former scholars, influenced by Otto Hirschfelds model of Roman imperial administration, would have presumed it. Complementary to this result, traces of a ratio patrimonii, a central account for the income of the emperor, could not be found in the first century A.D. and were only scarce for the rest of the examined period. Moreover, it could be proved that ratio patrimonii is not to be equated with “patrimonium”. The assumptions made on the organization of the imperial patrimonium by modern scholars are hence to be reviewed.
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© Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Bonn | Veröffentlicht: 16.09.2011