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Titel | Variational Methods in Shape Space |
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Autor | Benedikt Konstantin Josef Wirth |

Publikationsform | Dissertation |

Abstract | This dissertation deals with the application of variational methods in spaces of geometric shapes. In particular, the treated topics include shape averaging, principal component analysis in shape space, computation of geodesic paths in shape space, as well as shape optimisation. Chapter 1 provides a brief overview over the employed models of shape space. Geometric shapes are identified with two- or three-dimensional, deformable objects. Deformations will be described via physical models; in particular, the objects will be interpreted as consisting of either a hyperelastic solid or a viscous liquid material. Furthermore, the description of shapes via phase fields or level sets is briefly introduced. Chapter 2 reviews different and related approaches to shape space modelling. References to related topics in image segmentation and registration are also provided. Finally, the relevant shape optimisation literature is introduced. Chapter 3 recapitulates the employed concepts from continuum mechanics and phase field modelling and states basic theoretical results needed for the later analysis. Chapter 4 addresses the computation of shape averages, based on a hyperelastic notion of shape dissimilarity: The dissimilarity between two shapes is measured as the minimum deformation energy required to deform the first into the second shape. A corresponding phase-field model is introduced, analysed, and finally implemented numerically via finite elements. A principal component analysis of shapes, which is consistent with the previously introduced average, is considered in Chapter 5. Elastic boundary stresses on the average shape are used as representatives of the input shapes in a linear vector space. On these linear representatives, a standard principal component analysis can be performed, where the employed covariance metric should be properly chosen to depend on the input shapes. Chapter 6 interprets shapes as belonging to objects made of a viscous liquid and correspondingly defines geodesic paths between shapes. The energy of a path is given as the total physical dissipation during the deformation of an object along the path. A rigid body motion invariant time discretisation is achieved by approximating the dissipation along a path segment by the deformation energy of a small solid deformation. The numerical implementation is based on level sets. Chapter 7 is concerned with the optimisation of the geometry and topology of solid structures that are subject to a mechanical load. Given the load configuration, the structure rigidity, its volume, and its surface area shall be optimally balanced. A phase field model is devised and analysed for this purpose. In this context, the use of nonlinear elasticity allows to detect buckling phenomena which would be ignored in linearised elasticity. |

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